The Problem of Greater Baluchistan.

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‘Book review’ by Dosten Baloch:

About Author:Inayatullah Baloch got birth in December 28, 1946 at JhokGomal in Upper Derajat (Eastern Baluchistan). He graduated from Peshawar University (PU), did his post-graduation from Department of Political Science, University of Punjab (UOP), Lahore, and studied at the Sindh Muslim Law College, University of Karachi Sindh. He joined the National Institute for Historical and Cultural Research (NIFHACR) in 1974, where he worked as a Research Fellow and Senior Research Fellow (Assistant Professor) till 1978. He was visiting professor at the Department of International Relations, Quad-i-Azam University Islamabad in 1977-78. He was a DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) fellow in 1978 to 1982 in Heidelberg University and has been working as a Research Associate at the South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg. He has written on the history and politics of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Baluchistan (Iran-Pakistan).

Introduction to the Book: The book, The Problem of Greater Baluchistan, is a well-researched study of Baloch nationalism by Inayatullah Baloch. The author portrays the Baloch national problem in the perspective of Marxism-Leninism, two western schools, the U.N and international jurist.

The author discusses the area and location, climate and population and strategic importance of Balochistan in detail. The author narrates the history of partition of Balochistan into Iran and Afghanistan. The writer discusses the Baloch-Afghan or McMahon Line, the political and constitutional composition of Balochistan, its ethnic groups, the Makran School or territorial nationalism, Altaic, Aryan, Semitic, and Baloch Tribe and their location.

The Baloch national languages, their origins, script and ethnic borders, literature, classification of Balochi poetry, historical poetry, patriotic poetry, anti-colonial poetry, the rise of national poetry and modern literature are discussed vigorously.

The author discusses about the religion of Balochistan; Zikri-Nemazi and Hindu, its politics, Baloch and the Two-Nation Theory, its tradition and habits, the Baloch national code of honor, Baloch-mayar, and Balochmayar and governments.

The writer writes about the ancient history, history and resistance, the formation of the first Baloch confederacy, relation between Makran and Kalat confederacies, civil war and migration to India, Makran state, the Baloch confederacy of Derajat, the Khanate of Balochistan, the treaty of Kalat, 1758 or the treaty of non-interference, a brief note on the treaty of Kalat, the political system of the Khanate, state administration, military organization, the national flag, the national language, currency, foreign policy, land appropriation, tribal organization, the death of the Nasir Khan the great and after Nasir Khan the great.

The author further writes about the history of imperialism and awakening, Balochistan as part of buffer state of Afghanistan, Kalat and the first Baloch Afghan war, the siege of kalat, the division of Khanate and uprising, consequences of the first Afghan war, Balochistan as a buffer and independent ally, the Punjabi school, the Mithankot conference, the forward policy or the Punjabi viewpoint, the Sandeman system, Balochistan and General Browne, the Hijrat movement and resistance in western Balochistan.

Besides  this, the writer describes the history of revolutionaries, the Baloch delegation and Baku conference, the Baloch contribution to the soviet revolution, constitutional politics, formation of the Anjuman, Magassi agitation and migration, Anjuman’s policy of reforms, the Anjuman on independent Balochistan, the Kalat State National Party, the National Party and reforms, the party’s annual meeting, the national party’s policy towards Kharan, the Watan Party, the Muslim League, the referendum, and the politics of Mir Ahmed Yar Khan.

In addition, the author narrates the background of the political status of Balochistan, British approach, Lord Lytton on the political status of Balochistan, the shift in British policy, the constitutional position of Balochistan, independence of Balochistan and its eclipse, the council of ministers, the legislature, election of the parliament, Baloch-Pakistan relations, the British policy and the arms for kalat, the Kalat parliament and the accession, Pakistan’s policy on accession, relations between India and Kalat, the death of the Khanate, the Baloch national resistance and the trial.

Content of Book:The book, The Problem of Greater Baluchistan, has the following two parts:

Part I

  1. The National Question and The Right of Self-Determination

  2. Nationalism and Geography

  3. National Culture and Literature

  4. Religion and Social Tradition

  5. Baluch Nationalism and History

  6. Imperialism and Awakening

  7. Nationalism, Revolutionary and Constitutional Movements

  8. The Political Status of Baluchistan

  9. Independence and Its Eclipse

  10. Concluding Remarks

Part II

  1. The Peace Treaty of Kalat, 1758

  2. Memorandum of the Government of Kalat; Prepared by Sir Sultan Ahmed Khan and Presented to the Cabinet Mission by M.A Jinnah, 1946

  3. Retrocession of Quetta, Nushki and Nasirabad, Prepared by Sir Sultan Ahmed Khan and Presented to Cabinet Mission by M.A Jinnah, 1946

  4. Draft Memorandum; Prepared by I.I Chundrigar, Bar-at-Law of Bombay, on the Political Status of Baluchistan

  5. The Letter of the Prime Minister of Kalat to L. Griffin, Secretary, Political Department, 26 December 1946

  6. A Note; Prepared by a Legal Expert, 19 March 1947

  7. Legal Opinion by Sir Walter Monckton, 5 June 1947

  8. Communique, 11 August 1947

  9. Extract from the Secret Memorandum; Prepared by the Minister of the State, 12 September 1947

  10. The List of British Residents in the Court of Khanate (1887-1947)

  11. Biographical Notes

  12. Maps

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